General Training Reading Sample 26

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-40, which are based on Reading Passage 26.

Which THREE possible reasons for American dominance of the film industry are given in the text?

A  plenty of capital to purchase what it didn't have
B  making films dealing with serious issues
C  being first to produce a feature film
D  well-written narratives
E  the effect of the First World War
F  excellent special effects

The history of cinema

Although French, German, American and British pioneers have all been credited with the invention of cinema, the British and the Germans played a relatively small role in its worldwide exploitation. It was above all the French, followed closely by the Americans, who were the most passionate exporters of the new invention, helping to start cinema in China, Japan, Latin America and Russia. In terms of artistic development it was again the French and the Americans who took the lead, though in the years before the First World War, Italy, Denmark and Russia also played a part.

In the end, it was the United States that was to become, and remain, the largest single market for films. By protecting their own market and pursuing a vigorous export policy, the Americans achieved a dominant position in the world market by the start of the First World War. The centre of film-making had moved westwards, to Hollywood, and it was films from these new Hollywood studios that flooded onto the worldís film markets in the years after the First World War, and have done so ever since. Faced with total Hollywood domination, few film industries proved competitive. The Italian industry, which had pioneered the feature film with spectacular films like ìQuo vadis?î (1913) and "Cabiria" (1914), almost collapsed. In Scandinavia, the Swedish cinema had a brief period of glory, notably with powerful epic films and comedies. Even the French cinema found itself in a difficult position. In Europe, only Germany proved industrially capable, while in the new Soviet Union and in Japan, the development of the cinema took place in conditions of commercial isolation.

Hollywood took the lead artistically as well as industrially. Hollywood films appealed because they had better-constructed narratives, their special effects were more impressive, and the star system added a new dimension to the screen acting. If Hollywood did not have enough of its own resources, it had a great deal of money to buy up artists and technical innovations from Europe to ensure its continued dominance over present or future competition.

From early cinema, it was only American slapstick comedy that successfully developed in both short and feature format. However, during this ëSilent Filmí era, animation, comedy, serials and dramatic features continued to thrive, along with factual films or documentaries, which acquired an increasing distinctiveness as the period progressed. It was also at this time that the avant-garde film first achieved commercial success, this time thanks almost exclusively to the French and the occasional German film.

Of the countries which developed and maintained distinctive national cinemas in the silent period, the most important were France, Germany and the Soviet Union. Of these, the French displayed the most continuity, in spite of the war and post-war economic uncertainties. The German cinema, relatively insignificant in the pre-war years, exploded onto the world scene after 1919. Yet even they were both overshadowed by the Soviets after the 1917 Revolution. They turned their back on the past, leaving the style of the pre-war Russian cinema to the emigres who fled westwards to escape the Revolution.

The other countries whose cinemas changed dramatically are: Britain, which had an interesting but undistinguished history in the silent period; Italy, which had a brief moment of international fame just before the war; the Scandinavian countries, particularly Denmark, which played a role in the development of silent cinema quite out of proportion to their small population; and Japan, where a cinema developed based primarily on traditional theatrical and, to a lesser extent, other art forms and only gradually adapted to western influence.

Questions 31-33
Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 31-33 on your answer sheet.

31 Which TWO types of film were not generally made in major studios?  
32 Which type of film did America develop in both short and feature films?  
33 Which type of film started to become profitable in the 'silent' period? 

Questions 34 - 40
Look at the following statements (Questions 34-40) and the list of countries below.
Match each statement with the correct country.
Write the correct letter A-J in boxes 34-40 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

34 It helped other countries develop their own film industry.
35 It was the biggest producer of films.
36 It was first to develop the 'feature' film.
37 It was responsible for creating stars.
38 It made the most money from 'avant-garde' films.
39 It made movies based more on its own culture than outside influences.
40 It had a great influence on silent movies, despite its size.

General Training Reading Sample 26

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0 # Blessing 2017-11-17 09:54
With the new paragraph added, it is 13/13.
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0 # Nnochiri Vivian 2017-06-30 22:42
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0 # Andy 2018-01-30 00:57
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0 # Andy 2018-01-30 00:55
Are you still looking for a speaking partner?
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+9 # PP 2017-03-02 22:33
With reference to Q. 31, there are 2 paragraphs missing. Between the 3rd and 4th paragraph, there are 2 more paragraphs. They are as below:

The rest of the world survived partly by learning from Hollywood and partly because audiences continued to exist for a product which corresponded to needs which Hollywood could not supply. As well as popular audiences, there were also increasing audiences for films which were artistically more adventurous or which dealt with the issues in the outer world.

None of this would have happened without technology, and cinema is, in fact, unique as an art form. In the early years, this art form was quite primitive, similar to the original French idea of using a lantern and slides back in the seventeenth century. Early cinema programmes were a mixture of items, combining comic sketches, free-standing narratives, serial episodes and the occasional trick or animated film. With the arrival of the feature length narrative as the main attraction, other types of films became less important. The making of cartoons became a separate branch of film-making, generally practised outside the major studios, and the same was true of serials. Together with newsreels, they tended to be shown as short items in a programme which led to the feature.
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0 # Abdalla G 2017-09-21 14:01
Thanks a lot, man :)
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0 # YB 2017-08-20 05:18
Thanks a lot for this paragraph...
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0 # SS 2017-07-14 08:09
Thanks a lot! That was very confusing! Now, it's clear!
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+1 # Joyce 2016-12-07 04:45
Could you please explain why the answer to question 31 is 'Cartoon and serials'? I can't find cartoon in any paragraph. :(
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0 # Rashedul Hossain Khan 2016-06-13 00:27
From the sentence "during this ëSilent Filmí era, animation, comedy, serials and dramatic features continued to thrive, along with factual films or documentaries"
--- we can see that specifically in this era there are two new types emerged such as animation/cartoons and serials. But comedy and feature film types were mentioned before in previous period. That's why the answer is: cartoons and serials. Thanks.
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+1 # Shahed Al Hasan 2016-05-11 09:07
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0 # Jane 2016-03-12 02:04
Please, inform me where I can find the answer to the question 36.
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0 # Kavi 2016-03-12 05:39
Sentence for the question 36 - The Italian industry, which had pioneered the feature film with spectacular films like ìQuo Vadis? î (1913) and "Cabiria" (1914), almost collapsed.
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0 # Sabin 2015-12-08 01:53
Yeah, I believe it's the hardest one. However, not as hard as we consider. Although I could not locate and answer to the question 31. Others are simple as I believe. I am still working on question 31 but I do not have any idea how the answer is cartoons and serials. It would be great if somebody finds and can describe the answer. In my opinion, this question might be wrong!
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-1 # Amit 2015-05-16 17:49
It's a tough one...
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+9 # Jaiveer 2015-04-17 02:48
I cannot locate answer number 31. Where is it written that it is a cartoon or serial? Even it is not mentioned in above paragraph!
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+3 # Sha 2015-04-02 09:32
Please help me find the answer to the question number 31.
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+2 # Man 2016-07-09 01:42
Nothing is mentioned in the reading passage about question 31.
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+1 # Empty 2015-01-09 09:04
One of the hardest reading samples I tried from this website!
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