IELTS Academic Reading Sample 1 - Population Viability Analysis

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-39 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below:

Population Viability Analysis

Part A
To make political decisions about the extent and type of forestry in a region it is important to understand the consequences of those decisions. One tool for assessing the impact of forestry on the ecosystem is population viability analysis (PVA). This is a tool for predicting the probability that a species will become extinct in a particular region over a specific period. It has been successfully used in the United States to provide input into resource exploitation decisions and assist wildlife managers and there is now enormous potential for using population viability to assist wildlife management in Australia’s forests. A species becomes extinct when the last individual dies. This observation is a useful starting point for any discussion of extinction as it highlights the role of luck and chance in the extinction process. To make a prediction about extinction we need to understand the processes that can contribute to it and these fall into four broad categories which are discussed below.

Part B
     A)   Early attempts to predict population viability were based on demographic uncertainty whether an individual survives from one year to the next will largely be a matter of chance. Some pairs may produce several young in a single year while others may produce none in that same year. Small populations will fluctuate enormously because of the random nature of birth and death and these chance fluctuations can cause species extinctions even if, on average, the population size should increase. Taking only this uncertainty of ability to reproduce into account, extinction is unlikely if the number of individuals in a population is above about 50 and the population is growing.

     B)   Small populations cannot avoid a certain amount of inbreeding. This is particularly true if there is a very small number of one sex. For example, if there are only 20 individuals of a species and only one is a male, all future individuals in the species must be descended from that one male. For most animal species such individuals are less likely to survive and reproduce. Inbreeding increases the chance of extinction.

     C)    Variation within a species is the raw material upon which natural selection acts. Without genetic variability, a species lacks the capacity to evolve and cannot adapt to changes in its environment or to new predators and new diseases. The loss of genetic diversity associated with reductions in population size will contribute to the likelihood of extinction.

    D)   Recent research has shown that other factors need to be considered. Australia’s environment fluctuates enormously from year to year. These fluctuations add yet another degree of uncertainty to the survival of many species. Catastrophes such as fire, flood, drought or epidemic may reduce population sizes to a small fraction of their average level. When allowance is made for these two additional elements of uncertainty the population size necessary to be confident of persistence for a few hundred years may increase to several thousand.

Part C
Besides these processes, we need to bear in mind the distribution of a population. A species that occurs in five isolated places each containing 20 individuals will not have the same probability of extinction as a species with a single population of 100 individuals in a single locality. Where logging occurs (that is, the cutting down of forests for timber) forest-dependent creatures in that area will be forced to leave. Ground-dwelling herbivores may return within a decade. However, arboreal marsupials (that is animals which live in trees) may not recover to pre-logging densities for over a century. As more forests are logged, animal population sizes will be reduced further. Regardless of the theory or model that we choose, a reduction in population size decreases the genetic diversity of a population and increases the probability of extinction because of any or all of the processes listed above. It is therefore, a scientific fact that increasing the area that is loaded in any region will increase the probability that forest-dependent animals will become extinct.

Questions 28-31:
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Part A of Reading Passage 1? In boxes 28-31 on your answer sheet write:

YES                if the statement agrees with the writer
NO                  if the statement contradicts the writer
NOT GIVEN    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

Example                                                                                               Answer

A link exists between the consequences of decisions and
the decision making process itself.                                                            YES

28.     Scientists are interested in the effect of forestry on native animals.
29.     PVA has been used in Australia for many years.
30.     A species is said to be extinct when only one individual exists.
31.     Extinction is a naturally occurring phenomenon. 

Questions 32-35:
These questions are based on Part B of Reading Passage 1. In paragraphs A to D the author describes four processes which may contribute to the extinction of a species. Match the list of processes (i-vi) to the paragraphs. Write the appropriate number (i-vi) in boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more processes than paragraphs so you will not use all of them.

32.   Paragraph A

33.   Paragraph B

34.   Paragraph C

35.   Paragraph D

Processes
i   Loss of ability to adapt
ii   Natural disasters
iii   An imbalance of the sexes
iv   Human disasters
v   Evolution
vi  The haphazard nature of reproduction

Questions 36-38:
Based on your reading of Part C, complete the sentences below with words taken from the passage. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 36-38 on your answer sheet.

While the population of a species may be on the increase, there is always a chance that small isolated groups .......... (36) .......... Survival of a species depends on a balance between the size of a population and its .......... (37) ......... The likelihood that animals which live in forests will become extinct is increased when ..........  (38) ...........

Question 39:
Choose the appropriate letter A-D and write it in box 39 on your answer sheet.

39.  An alternative heading for the passage could be:
     A.    The protection of native flora and fauna
     B.    Influential factors in assessing survival probability
     C.    An economic rationale for the logging of forests
     D.    Preventive measures for the extinction of a species
 

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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Rating 3.42 (66 Votes)

Comments   

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0 # Fareed 2016-11-21 08:05
In question no. 28, - "Scientists are interested in the effect of forestry on native animals.", in the text, there is no mention of scientists' interests. Shouldn't the answer be "Not given"? Thanks.
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+5 # Emma Yu 2016-11-13 06:27
Keywords to find the answer:
28. effect of= impact of, native animals=ecosystem
29. "now enormous potential" deny "many years"
30. "the last individual dies" deny "one individual exists"
31. the rest of paragraph just mention extinction process of luck and chances, not mention about phenomena.

32 reproduce= reproduction, uncertainly= haphazard
33. A small number of one sex
34. the loss of genetic diversity
35. catastrophes= disaster, fire, flood... are nature

36 to 38 is a bit difficult, it requests to read through the whole paragraph because the answer is disordered from the article. If the questions start from 39, 38, 37, then, it is easier.

I spent 17 minutes on this reading, I don't get used to reading by computer yet, I use to read from books as I could mark the keyword. I did 2 faults, 28 and 36,

In 28, I didn't tackle the right answer because I was focused on finding any word relates to SCIENTIST ARE INTERESTED IN. I didn't find any words embody "SCIENTIST" and their "interested". Even in the later part, I could not find the words to match. But the subject of the question couldn't be found. So I don't know this questions is exactly right or wrong or should be NOT GIVEN.

In 36, I was too focus on finding the answer as an order. I spent too much time on studying the first 2 sentence of Part C, but I didn't find and verb to finish the sentence. And I have never expected the answer to be found at the start from the end back to the beginning... That means, my grammatical range is not strong enough, and every kind of questions could be found in IELTS exam.
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0 # Anonymous 2016-10-31 09:30
Should the answer for question 28 be iv. Human disasters instead of ii. Natural disaster.
Anyone can explain, please?
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0 # Naveed Iqbal 2016-11-02 21:53
Hello bro... see this point of your question
'Australia’s environment fluctuates'/
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0 # Anonymous 2016-10-31 03:32
Mistakenly looked into paragraph C. My bad. ii. Natural disaster is the correct option.
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-5 # Mohd 2016-08-01 23:47
Q. 28: Scientists are interested in the effect of forestry on native animals. The answer is 'yes'. See here (that a species will become extinct in a particular region over a specific period. It has been successfully used in the United States).
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+5 # Naina 2016-08-10 11:18
Can you explain where did they mention about Scientists and why can't it be 'Not Given'?
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0 # Saladin 2016-08-01 16:28
Can you please explain q 28 & 29? I couldn't find the clarification.
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+2 # Anood 2016-07-18 16:51
Hi, I can't find the answers for 36, 37 and 38. Can anyone help me? I did not read the whole passage, I just skimmed and scanned it.
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0 # Abdullah 2016-07-05 15:02
It is helpful.
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+4 # Joel, RN 2016-07-02 02:46
And also, may I just add that I faced countless passages in academic module and I can say that this was man-made. Your sample does not even contain #40 question, there are no information/answers found for #36 - 38 and I saw a lot of grammatical errors. I believe many will agree that 36-38 questions' answers cannot be found.
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+2 # Rajat 2016-07-13 10:48
Yes, I agree with you.
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+19 # Joel, RN 2016-07-02 02:29
The answer to Q. #28 should be not Given. Yes it says "One tool for assessing the impact of forestry on the ecosystem is population viability analysis (PVA). This is a tool for predicting the probability that a species will become extinct in a particular region... "but in this statement ... "Scientists" were never mentioned that they were the ones who are interested. It just said things about PVA.. How come the answer is YES?
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+4 # Naina 2016-08-10 11:20
Yes, I agree with you as they didn't mention scientist.
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+3 # Saladin 2016-08-01 16:14
Yes, I agree with you. There is no idea that indicates that the scientists get involved or show their interest in the paragraph.
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+2 # Reshma 2016-07-30 18:20
I too have the same doubt...
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+9 # Lucy 2016-06-19 12:50
Questions 36, 37 and 38 have answers that are not taken from the passage as it is said (complete the sentences below with words taken from the passage).
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+2 # Min Lee 2016-06-17 16:35
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+9 # Nabin 2016-05-24 18:49
10 days are remaining for my exam and I have just found this site.
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0 # Samail 2016-06-12 11:19
Quoting Nabin:
10 days are remaining for my exam and I have just found this site.

The same has happened to me))
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0 # Prakash Khaniya 2016-05-20 10:10
Can you provide me more reading questions?
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-6 # Uynga 2016-04-20 09:09
I want to give IELTS exam.
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0 # Pinkyraut 2016-08-27 10:32
I had appeared in the IELTS test once but I gotta score 6 because of the reading section. I couldn't finish it on time. Very upset now. Can you please help me regarding the reading practice?
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+6 # Khalid 2016-05-03 06:44
I have registered my IELTS exam. The final date is 4th June, 2016.
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0 # Tajbir 2016-07-11 08:38
So did you pass in the examination? I might be having the exam in November, 2016.
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-3 # Askari Haider 2016-04-15 20:44
Seriously I face difficulty to find fill in blanks.I couldn't expected like these small words in blanks. Seriously we need this kind of tips.
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+4 # Neelam Khan 2016-04-13 08:22
From 36-38, I am confuse. Please explain these answers. How can I find their answer correctly?
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0 # Naina 2016-08-10 11:28
You have to see the keywords and synonyms, for example, Q no. 36 - they are talking about small isolated groups in the reading passage. It very clearly mentions that 20 individual have the same probability of extinction that means those small isolated groups could become extinct.
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0 # Elle 2016-06-20 10:21
I am having the same problem with those questions as well. It's like we have to construct our own word or phrase regarding on our thorough understanding of the whole paragraph. I got 9 out of 12 because of that :(
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-2 # Rukmanjot 2016-05-27 15:00
I am also not able to find their answers!
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0 # Abdul Rahim 2016-05-19 15:15
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0 # Nahid 2016-08-31 10:16
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0 # Adil 2016-12-05 11:00
I need speaking partner. I've sent you request on Skype.
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0 # Yuki 2016-05-09 00:29
In the part C, you have to find the word/s in the passage to complete the sentence. Sometimes they change or rephrase the sentence, that is why you have to understand it.
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+19 # Brusk 2016-03-23 01:59
Q 28 must be not given. There is no information about that. I solved countless gap-fill questions and this is the first time I've seen the answers that independent from the passage.
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+3 # Thogin 2016-04-11 05:56
I agree with you, there is nothing about scientists and what not. 29 runs into the same issue.
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0 # Purna 2016-04-07 15:22
The correct answer is "Yes" because the key words effect and forestry has been used in the passage and this tool is eventually used by the scientists.
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+2 # Shabbir123 2016-03-15 07:57
Sir please I have a lot of confusions in questions 36-38. How to find this type of answers? Is there any tip or something easy procedure which may help in exam in a short time? I am always getting struck in this type of question - fill in the blanks. So any body please give me logic to find the answer of this type questions. Thanks.
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-2 # Jahangir Alom 2016-04-23 19:30
36-38 are summarized of part c. Read part c & try to understand but you have to catch key words of 36, 37 & 38.
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+3 # Sanjeev 2016-02-24 12:20
Hi, this is my first time in IELTS and I found this website very sympathetic to me. Thank you so much in advance.
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-18 # Comma please 2015-10-20 10:12
Why you don't put any comma in reading passage. We are a LEARNER!!!!!!!!!!. I don't want to learn bad habit. However, Thanks for updating.
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+3 # Ratheepan 2015-10-08 07:11
Hi I started studying IELTS just one month ago. I found this web just three days ago. I wanted say that this will help me get high band in IELTS. Can you explain that 36 to 38 I could not find the answers one that page. Where can I find the answer? It may be in whole page or I have to think?
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+6 # Attar 2015-11-30 13:59
Use Show/ Hide Answers
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0 # Joanna 2015-10-05 22:13
It was helpful! Thanks!
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+2 # Stepan 2015-10-05 19:45
Can anyone please explain to me, why in the world question 28 is YES?? There is nowhere in Part A stating that! So why? It must be Not Given.And would the answer 'forests are logged' be acceptable for question 38, instead of presented answer in the key?
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+3 # Dai 2015-09-25 16:01
Questions from 36 to 38 with require take words from passage (part C), but I do not see exactly many phrase words in your answers. can you explain for me?
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0 # ok 2016-01-20 12:06
Like!
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+5 # mohamedaboelgheit 2015-08-07 04:29
Hey. It's confusing that the answer words given to 36, 37 & 38 are not included in the passage. Is that acceptable to use words that are not included in the passage but have the same meaning?
thank you
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0 # Tahmin 2015-07-28 00:23
Hi, I did not understand how answers were chosen for 28 to 31!!!! for an example for the qs: 1 ans given as yes. Can anyone tell me where it is written exactly? Seriously I doubt the answers are right if I follow the passage.Sorry every one.
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-2 # Shalini 2015-07-26 00:17
No comments
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-5 # simranjeet 2015-07-25 12:24
Hi m simran, I don't understand the answers of the passage.
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+1 # Usman 2015-07-10 19:47
36 question answer is i think.(number)
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+2 # Naveen 2015-07-01 20:31
I am so much confused about question 36, 37 and 38. How can I fill suitable word?
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+1 # Linh 2015-06-18 08:40
Can you explain question 37 to me please?
Thank you a lot !
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+4 # Agata 2015-06-08 23:56
for question 28 keywords are "forestry on the ecosystem".Ecosystem refers to native animals.
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+1 # malakpreet kaur 2015-05-29 15:43
Hi, I do not understand 36 to 38.
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+19 # phamthoa 2015-05-08 16:38
Actually, I don't find any information that convince that the scientists are interested in the effect of forestry on native animals. so I chose Not given for question 28. :( please explain for me.
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0 # Maryam 2016-03-22 12:43
The answer can be inferred from the beginning part of the text.
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0 # Saladin 2016-08-01 16:22
Which word indicates that the scientists are showing their interest??? Can you explain?
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+2 # Srikanth 2015-11-18 19:35
I am also confused that 28 Q.
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0 # Reshma 2016-07-30 18:17
Me too...
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0 # Neerav 2015-08-22 01:15
In true-false you deal with fact while in yes-no you deal with opinion of narrator and not the exact fact so check out last line of this passage which depicts a scientific fact.
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-2 # Neerav 2015-08-22 01:06
Read last line of section C of passage.
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-3 # motaz 2015-05-26 14:35
There is a enormous potential for using population viability to assist wildlife management in Australia’s forests
I think that what they mean by interest
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+1 # Kay, 2015-05-07 22:44
Anyone pls explain q1
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+2 # Kay, 2015-05-07 22:41
Hello mentor,
I was taught that for the type of question - Y, N, NG we have to find the exact or same meaning word in the text to conclude it is Yes or True, and implication or guessing might not be right. Can you plz explain this, question 1 in particular..
Thank you
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-9 # Razz 2015-04-30 09:47
I am happy. It is easy passage. I enjoyed reading.
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+3 # sairus 2015-04-08 08:29
I'm sorry, is it only me who thinks these examples are way too easy compared to the actual test questions?
I don't know if these are taken from IELTS actual questionnaires and if so, I'm glad that these help a lot. Thanks to the provider though, you are much appreciated.
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+1 # Eddy 2016-06-24 19:37
Yes I agree with you too.
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+1 # Lucius 2015-03-30 01:22
It is very hard :(
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+6 # jerry 2015-03-23 19:53
where can we find the support info for the the answer in number 28?
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+2 # mussawer nazir 2015-03-12 02:27
That's a great effort. I enjoyed this test thoroughly.
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-1 # mussawer nazir 2015-03-12 02:25
That's great effort . I enjoyed this test well.
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-2 # surendra 2015-03-07 11:25
I think 38 answer could be reduced population size ??
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-1 # VIKRAMBIR SINGH AULAKH 2015-01-20 09:00
I m very very thankful for the whole information regarding ielts
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-2 # caraiu john 2015-01-06 01:18
Good Help for IELTS Reading ...caraiu
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0 # Fan 2014-12-28 13:08
36.37.38.got some serious situation.
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0 # ZaZa 2014-12-07 13:17
Thank you in advance for your efforts. I'm wondering why there are not exact match answers for questions 36, 37 and 38? Is it acceptable we change the form of the word?
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0 # mohamedaboelgheit 2015-08-07 04:30
Quoting ZaZa:
Thank you in advance for your efforts. I'm wondering why there are not exact match answers for questions 36, 37 and 38? Is it acceptable we change the form of the word?

its a good question. we really need a clarification
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+1 # priyanka saha 2014-11-22 21:20
Iam grateful to u for arranging such an wonderful sample quest............... .....
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-3 # Erica 2014-10-16 14:42
Answer No. 39 is not given. Is it (B)?
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-2 # Mohamed 2015-09-17 00:46
No I think it is B because the passage explains some solutions.
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+2 # IELTS Mentor 2014-10-16 17:36
Yes, the right answer for the question 39 would be 'B': (Influential factors in assessing survival probability)
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0 # love sran 2015-09-28 20:01
Quoting IELTS Mentor:
Yes, the right answer for the question 39 would be 'B': (Influential factors in assessing survival probability)

Pls ..tell me some strategies of Cambridge reading
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+1 # Bilal Shah 2015-09-28 13:10
I did not understand why the answer for 28 is yes, why not 'not given'?
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+5 # karan 2014-10-13 21:21
Answers from 36 to 38 are more than 3 words
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-3 # mohamedaboelgheit 2015-08-07 04:30
I noticed the same
:)
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+6 # Abraham 2014-10-14 01:59
Quoting karan:
Answers from 36 to 38 are more than 3 words


Dear Karan, If you notice the answers, you would find that:
36. will not survive
37. locality
38. logging takes place

and none of them contains more than three words.
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0 # Lala 2016-05-16 17:13
But the question says NO more than three words!
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-2 # mofazzal 2014-03-07 14:32
thanks bro
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-4 # sanjit mozumder 2014-02-28 12:06
aro valo questions chai?
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+4 # Israa 2014-01-15 07:43
Thank you so much. this website is very useful for me:-)
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-1 # MJ 2016-08-29 13:06
Hi, were you able to download all these reading materials? Thank you.
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