Answer Explanation - Changing Our Understanding of Health
- Last Updated: Saturday, 03 September 2022 23:27
- Written by IELTS Mentor
- Hits: 6427
Answer explanations - Changing Our Understanding of Health
Go to the Reading Passage using the link - Changing Our Understanding of Health
Tips for answering Paragraph Heading type questions in your IELTS Reading test:
[Please do not read the paragraph headings from the question first. If you do, you will be more confused while searching for the right heading for each paragraph. The right approach is that you first read a single paragraph (in this case read paragraph B first) and then look at the list of paragraph headings that have been given. Discard one by one until you get the most suitable heading. Afterwards, go to the next paragraph, read it and look at the headings to find the answers to this paragraph.
Repeat the process till you are done finding all the paragraph headings. It is worth noting that, sometimes, you will be confused and think that more than one heading is appropriate for a paragraph. In such cases, skim through the paragraph again and then decide only among the headings that you thought would be qualified for this paragraph. Omit the unwanted ones, and then decide on the most suitable paragraph heading. Don't waste too much time finding the heading of a single paragraph. Leave it if it takes you more than 2 attempts.]
Paragraph 'B' of this reading passage mainly outlines how health has been viewed in the physical sense only, and how heath has been defined and seen in medical terms. Look at the lines:
... health has been viewed in the physical sense only. That is, good health has been connected to the smooth mechanical operation of the body, while ill health has been attributed to a breakdown in this machine. Health in this sense has been defined as the absence of disease or illness and is seen in medical terms.
So, the most suitable heading for this paragraph would be viii) "Definition of health in medical terms".
The texts in Paragraph 'C' focus on explaining how WHO challenged the old view of health and gave a holistic view of it. The word "holistic" in medical definition means taking the mind, body, spirit, and social factors of a patient rather than just his/her symptoms of a disease to determine the treatment. And this paragraph explains exactly that. Look at the text below that is taken from the paragraph:
... They stated that 'health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence of disease (WHO, 1946). Health and the person were seen more holistically (mind/body/spirit) and not just in physical terms.
This is why the correct heading for this paragraph must be ii) "Holistic approach to health".
Paragraph D starts by saying that "The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual". The paragraph goes on to say more about a healthy lifestyle. The last line in this paragraph also emphasizes that fact.
So the only obvious choice for this question is iv) "Healthy lifestyles approach to health".
If you skim through the lines in paragraph E, it should be quite obvious to you that it talks about how health is viewed from a socio-ecological perspective. It mentioned that during the 1980s and 1990s, the previously held view of health (i.e. lifestyle risks as the root cause of poor health) is not the only way to look at health. Rather health is being viewed also in terms of social, economical and environmental context. The last line in this paragraph also points out a broad socio-ecological view of health.
Please notice the underlined texts in the following extract from paragraph E:
During 1980s and 1990s there has been a growing swing away from seeing lifestyle risks as the root cause of poor health. While lifestyle factors still remain important, health is being viewed also in terms of the social, economic and environmental contexts in which people live. This broad approach to health is called the socio-ecological view of health...
... A broad socio-ecological view of health suggests that the promotion of health must include a strong social, economic and environmental focus.
This is why the right heading for this paragraph is ix) "Socio-ecological view of health".
[Please note that this paragraph just mentions that the broad socio-ecological view of health was endorsed at the first International Conference of Health Promotion held in 1986, in Ottawa, Canada. But it does not give many details about it. So the answer choice should NEVER be "Ottawa International Conference on Health Promotion"]
Paragraph F is about Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (and NOT about the 'Ottawa International Conference on Health Promotion'). It starts by saying that "At the Ottawa Conference in 1986, a charter was developed which outlined new directions for health promotion...".
[Please note that it is NOT about the conference, but about the charter.]
It gives more details about how this Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion remains as the backbone of health action today, what it states, and so on. The final 3 sentences in this paragraph also emphasize that fact. The last 3 sentences read:
The Ottawa Charter brings practical meaning and action to this broad notion of health promotion. It presents fundamental strategies and approaches in achieving health for all. The overall philosophy of health promotion which guides these fundamental strategies and approaches is one of 'enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health' (WHO, 1986).
So the obvious choice for this question is vii) "Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion".
Question 19: In which year did the World Health Organization define health in terms of mental, physical and social well-being?
Keywords: Which year; World Health Organisation / WHO; define; health; mental, physical and social well-being.
"1946" is the right answer because a direct reference to these words can be found in the 2nd sentence of paragraph “C” where it says:
“They stated that 'health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence of disease' (WHO, 1946).”
Here stated means defined. So the answer is "1946".
Question 20: Which members of society benefited most from the healthy lifestyles approach to health?
Answer: wealthy / the wealthy / the wealthy members / (the) wealthy (members) (of) (society)
Keywords: members of society; benefited most; healthy lifestyles approach.
This is the correct answer because a clear and concise reference to this can be found in the 4th sentence of paragraph “D” where it reads:
"While this individualistic healthy lifestyle approach to health worked for some (the wealthy members of society), people experiencing poverty, unemployment, underemployment or little control over the conditions of their daily lives benefited little from this approach."
[Tips: The answer should not exceed the three-word limits as the question suggests "NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS".]
Question 21: Name the three broad areas which relate to people's health, according to the socio-ecological view of health.
Answer: social, economic, environmental
Keywords: three broad areas; people’s health; socioecological view of health.
The reference to the answer to this question can be found in the 2nd and 3rd sentences in paragraph “E” where it says:
“While lifestyle factors still remain important, health is being viewed also in terms of the social, economic and environmental contexts in which people live. This broad approach to health is called the socio-ecological view of health.”
Question 22: During which decade were lifestyle risks seen as the major contributors to poor health?
Answer: 1970s / the 1970s
Keywords: which decade; lifestyle risks; contributor to poor health.
The answer to this question can be found in the 1st sentence of paragraph “D” where it says:
“The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual.”
[Please note that "1970" is a wrong answer. The question is not asking about the year, but about the decade.]
Question 23: Doctors have been instrumental in improving living standards in Western society.
Answer: NOT GIVEN
Keywords: doctors; instrumental; improving living standard; Western Society.
In the entire passage, there are no references to the words “doctors” and “living standards” whatsoever to even remotely suggest that doctors have actually played an instrumental role in improving living standards in Western society. Of course, the passage mentions the word “western” a couple of times in paragraphs 1 and 2, but that too only to describe how Western society has viewed the concept of health, and how it - the concept of health that is – has changed in the course of time. So, the answer is “Not Given”.
Question 24: The approach to health during the 1970s included the introduction of health awareness programs.
Keywords: approach to health; 1970s; health awareness programs.
Start reading from the very beginning of paragraph D which says:
“The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual. Specific behaviours which were seen to increase the risk of diseases, such as smoking, lack of fitness and unhealthy eating habits, were targeted. Creating health meant providing not only medical health care, but health promotion programs and policies which would help people maintain healthy behaviours and lifestyles.”.
In the sentences above, it is shown that from the year 1970, unhealthy lifestyles and behaviours, like smoking and unhealthy eating habits (all of them can be duly dubbed as parts of a health awareness programme), were targeted in order to prevent diseases and illnesses. It also mentions about health promotion programs and policies that are useful to create health. So, the answer to the question is “Yes”.
Question 25: The socio-ecological view of health recognises that lifestyle habits and the provision of adequate health care are critical factors governing health.
Keywords: socio-ecological view; lifestyle habits; adequate health care; critical factors.
In the reading passage, paragraph 'E' talks about the socio-ecological view of health. So, we will read through this paragraph to find what it says about the socio-ecological view of health and whether it agrees with the statement that has been given (i.e. The socio-ecological view of health recognises that lifestyle habits and the provision of adequate health care are critical factors governing health.)
Now, look at the sentences in the third part of the paragraph, where the writer mentions - “It is clear from this statement that the creation of health is about much more than encouraging healthy individual behaviours and lifestyles and providing appropriate medical care...”
Here, 'healthy individual behaviours and lifestyles' means 'lifestyle habits'. And 'appropriate medical care' is equivalent to 'adequate health care'.
Here, the phrase ‘much more than’ indicates a negative view of what has been stated in the question. So, the answer choice for this question is 'NO'.
Question 26: The principles of the Ottawa Charter are considered to be out of date in the 1990s.
Keywords: Ottawa charter; out of date.
Please read the first two sentences of paragraph 'F' that says:
“At the Ottawa Conference in 1986, a charter was developed which outlined new directions for health promotion based on the socio-ecological view of health. This charter, known as the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, remains as the backbone of health action today.”
According to the information in those sentences above in bold, the Ottawa charter is actually not considered to be out of date, rather, it is still the backbone of health action. So, the answer to the question is “No”.
Question 27: In recent years a number of additional countries have subscribed to the Ottawa Charter.
Answer: NOT GIVEN
Keywords: Ottawa charter; in recent years; additional countries.
Paragraphs 'E' and 'F' in the reading passage talk about the Ottawa Charter. However, there is no information regarding more countries subscribing or joining the Charter in recent years.
If you look further, paragraph 'E' mentions that:
“The broad socio-ecological view of health was endorsed at the first International Conference of Health Promotion held in 1986, Ottawa, Canada, where people from 38 countries agreed and declared...”
The statements above in the quote actually suggest that the number of countries, which initially endorsed the Ottawa charter in 1986, stood at 38, (it was in 1986 - which was decades ago) with no reference whatsoever to additional countries, endorsing that charter later on in recent years, can be found anywhere else in the passage. We can't also say that "no country has subscribed to Ottawa Charter in recent years since nothing related to that has been mentioned in the reading passage. So, the answer to the question is “Not Given”.
This is the end of the "Answer Explanation" section for the reading passage "Changing Our Understanding of Health".
If you have any questions or have difficulty understanding an explanation, please leave a comment and let us know.