Globalisation

Globalisation is a common topic in IELTS speaking, writing and listening tests. Thus knowing vocabularies related to 'globalisation" will help you write a better essay, understand topics discussed in a listening test and answer questions asked in a speaking exam.
 

Vocabularies to describe something global:

1. All around the world/ all over the world/ globally/ worldwide: [meaning - something that is related to the global context and not confined to a single part of the world.]

Example 1: (All around the world): The traditional artefacts and the seasonal highlight were a major festival held each January, attracting climbers from around the world.
Example 2: (Globally): It is evident that the success of such companies in a globally competitive economy depends on unlocking the talents of all the employees and coming with products that their competitors can only dream of.

2. Uniformity: [meaning - the quality of being the same or similar, conformity, constancy, consistency, steadiness.]

Example 1: (Uniformity): The administration deals directly with matters where uniformity of administration is essential.
Example 2: (Uniformity): In this era of globalisation, the pressure towards uniformity constantly threatens to erode local traditions which can cause the loss of many traditional aspects of a country.

3. Cosmopolitan: [meaning - a place that includes people from many different countries, international, global, universal.]

Example 1: (Cosmopolitan): Owing to globalisation and global migrations, the population of New York is of a very cosmopolitan and heterogeneous character.
Example 2: (Cosmopolitan): The Diner's Paradise is a cosmopolitan restaurant in London that offers sophisticated dishes made with global ingredients.

 

Vocabularies to describe the different regions of the world:

1. Less developed countries: [meaning - low-income countries, poor countries, countries with less developed economies.]

Example: Perhaps the aid should be diverted to some less developed countries that have a scarcity of natural resources and where poverty is still widespread.

2. Developing countries: [meaning - a country that is not yet industrialised but not poor either.]

Example: Many developing countries still struggle to meet the basic needs of their citizens.

3. Rich nations: [meaning - economically advanced countries, affluent nations, wealthy countries.]

Example: I believe, rich nations have a natural obligation to help poor countries so that they can become self-sufficient in the long run.

4. The industrialised world: [meaning - affluent nations, wealthy nations.]

Example: The industrialised world can provide financial support to such poor nations so as to alleviate poverty.

5. Superpower: [meaning - a superpower is a state with a dominant position characterized by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale, an extremely powerful nation.]

Example: The USA is a great economic superpower and the decision made by the country often determine the fate of many poor nations.
 

Globalisation, Trade & Economy:

1. Consumerism: [meaning - consumerism is a trend developed due to globalisation. It means we want to buy whatever we want, whenever we want and wherever we go. Alternatively, consumerism could be defined to be a social and economic order that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.]

Example: In the past, when consumerism was not a concern in society, people were very mindful of what they purchased or acquired.

2. Multinational: [meaning - not restricted to a single nation and usually global in nature, of or relating to more than two nationalities.]

Example: The amount of tax paid by most multinational companies has upset the policymakers, and they are going to take initiatives to revise the tax policy.

3. Global trade: [meaning - international trade.]

Example: Tariffs imposed on many products negatively impact global trade and international understandings.

4. Capitalism: [meaning - an economic and political system in which a country's trades and industries are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.]

Example: History has, perhaps, come to an end with the worldwide reach of globalized free-market capitalism.

5. Super-rich: [meaning - extremely rich or wealthy.]

Example: This monopoly market is creating more opportunities for the already super-rich people to increase their huge fortunes by using other people’s money.

6: Sweatshop: [meaning - a factory or workshop where workers are treated unfairly, for example having low wages, working long hours, and in poor conditions.]

Example: Fairtrade practices, practised by many Western countries, do not allow the use of child labour, sweatshop type environments, or poor working conditions.

7. Plutocrat: [meaning - capitalist, tycoon, billionaire, someone who exercises power by virtue of wealth.]

Example: Whenever the global economy was doing great, car producers immediately started working on a range of cars for the plutocrats only.

8. Outsourcing: [meaning - a business practice in which a company hires a third party to perform tasks, handle operations or provide services for the company.]

Example: Since those Western countries can’t make their products as cheap as some Asian countries can, the clothing companies are outsourcing their production to those Asian countries, especially due to cheap labour.

9. Emerging economy: [meaning - an economy with low to middle per capita income but mimics that of a developed nation. It is becoming more engaged with global markets as it grows.]

Example: In some emerging economies in Southeast Asia, direct selling penetration and global brand's market share are unbelievably strong.
 

Global context:

1. Universal:  [meaning - global, worldwide, universal, omnipresent, something for everyone.]

Example: Some aspects of globalisation have brought universal benefits while others are often debated.

2. International: [meaning - worldwide, global, multinational, universal.]

Example: Some events are international while some are specific to a country or a city.

3. Ubiquitous: [meaning - present everywhere, ever-present, everywhere, all over the place, all-pervasive, universal, worldwide, global.]

Example: The 21st Century is already being called the era of ubiquitous computing, and it is backed by truth and evidence.

4. The global village: [meaning - the idea that the countries in the world are being brought together by the internet and other electronic communication interconnections.]

Example: We live in a global village where we can enjoy many international brands and products and thanks to the globalisation for this facility.

5. The global economy: [meaning - the interconnected worldwide economic activities that take place among multiple countries.]

Example: The global economy is somewhat complex and can affect a national more than others.

6. Unilateral: [meaning - related to multiple nations and is global in nature.]

Example: This political party, favoured by the majority of the international organisations, has adopted a policy of unilateral disarmament during the last ten years or so.

7. Bilateral: [meaning - related to two nations which involve two parties, especially countries.]

Example: However, bilateral tensions and violence have remained high despite several bold peacemaking initiatives by mediating countries and organisations.
 

Vocabularies related to negative sides of globalisation:

1. Loss of identity: [meaning - losing someone's tradition, identity and culture.]

Example: Many countries are concerned about their loss of identity due to the negative impacts of globalisation on their local culture and custom.

2. National sovereignty: [meaning - the ultimate overseer, or authority, in the decision-making process of the state, political freedom.]

Example: While we wholeheartedly welcome the global trade facility, we should be wary of the threat to our national sovereignty that might follow due to globalisation.

3. Income inequality: [meaning - the earning discrimination among people, a significant disparity in the distribution of income between individuals, groups, populations, social classes, or countries.]

Example: In countries where income inequality is high, health inequality and social discriminations are also widespread.
 

Globalisation related collocations

1. Multinational companies: [meaning - a business organisation whose activities are located in multiple countries. ]

Example: The policy must consider the fact that many multinational companies are using their new global mobility to head for low tax regimes.]

2. Industrial revolution: [meaning - The Industrial Revolution was a period of major industrialization and innovation that took place during the late 1700s and early 1800s. In modern history, it is the process of change from an agrarian (agricultural) and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing.]

Example: With the Industrial Revolution came mass production of different machines that have made work more efficient and faster.

3. Income distribution: [meaning - income distribution covers how a country's total GDP is distributed amongst its population.]

Example: However, when considering income inequality, it is the income distribution among individuals that has emerged as the most useful indicator for researchers.

4. Plutocracy: [meaning - a system in which the government is controlled exclusively by the wealthy, either directly or indirectly.]

Example: This policy is necessary to save the country from the social and political dangers of plutocracy.

5. Crony capitalism: [meaning - an economic system characterized by close, mutually advantageous relationships between business leaders and government officials.]

Example: The policymakers were convinced that crony capitalism cannot bring many benefits for the ordinary people who are more than 85% of the total population.

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